Guitar Trio-John Mclaughlin-Al di Meola-Paco de Lucia

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Performing in the style of the Guitar Trio with the plectrum requires strict ALTERNATE PICKING for the solo lines that are picked at a very high velocity. You need to be able to “Jump” straight into the rhythmic flow. The patterns below detail the best key alternate picking patterns to gain mastery for this.

The key to all of this is to “Count Time/Groupings”and “Tap your foot” as you do so. If you count time you will play what you hear. It is the key to performing this guitar trio music.

Line 1-“16ths” Alternate Picking starting on a “Down” stroke

Guitar Trio Paco de lucia John Mclaughlin Al di Meola

Line 2- Extended version of the previous line above, again starting on a “Down” stroke

Guitar Trio Paco de lucia John Mclaughlin Al di Meola alternate picking lesson

Line 3-Groups of “4” with strict Alternate Picking but this time starting with an “Upstroke” creating a “Rolling” effect as the plectrum glides across the strings.

Guitar Trio Paco de lucia John Mclaughlin Al di Meola alternate picking guitar lesson

Groups of 6 VARIATIONS:

Line 4-This is a “Variation” of our very first pattern but this time played in “Sextuplets” starting on a “Down” stroke.

6s 1

Line 5-This line can be heard as Triplets or Sextuplets. This time though we are starting on an “Upstroke”. Again, because we are starting our alternate picking on an up stroke there is a fluid rolling effect as we cross the strings.

Guitar Trio Paco de lucia John Mclaughlin Al di Meola

Line 6-This is a key signature line of Pace de Lucia and Al di Meola. It is an ascending G major scale in double timed triplets [or Sextuplets]. We are starting our picking on an “Upstroke”and ascending passionately up the scale, The better the rhythm of the alternate picking the more clean and powerful this little lick becomes.

Guitar Trio Paco de lucia John Mclaughlin Al di Meola alternate picking

Line 7-Here is another variation of the 16th note line. This time we start “Upstroke and roll the line along with tight rhythmical alternate picking. The key as always is to count good time when picking and tap your foot for precision.

Guitar Trio Paco de lucia John Mclaughlin Al di Meola alternate picking guitar lesson

Line 8-“Spanish” descending 2 string line. Really it is an ascending “Down” stroke alternate picking pattern followed by an ascending “Up” stroke rolling alternate picking pattern. If you treat it like that then it is easy to play and learn.

Spanish

For a closer look there is a complete transcription of “Friday Night in San Franscisco” Book available AMAZON

Guitar Trio Paco de lucia John Mclaughlin Al di Meola alternate picking guitar lesson with tab, video and music notation

 

MODAL MUSIC THEORY LESSON FOR BEGINNERS [Easy to understand]

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What is a mode?

A mode is an “inversion” of a scale:

For instance if you start a scale on the 2nd note of the C major scale you will be playing “D dorian mode”.

THEN WHY DO PEOPLE FIND IT CONFUSING? HEY, MR JAZZ MAN!

That is because of “transposition”.

For instance:

We can transpose that “Dorian mode of D” to any tonic we desire.

In the example below it is transposed to C as the tonic. 

How did I do this?

Well if the note D [Tonic of D dorian] is two 1/2 steps up from C then what is the note C two 1/2 steps up from? 
Answer is B flat. 
So we have a B flat scale staring on the note C.

screen shot 2019-01-15 at 12.53.04

Below is a Clear explanation and diagram in music notation. Or for my free modes ebook CLICK HERE

screen shot 2019-01-15 at 12.01.38

For more information please download my free ebook “Modes of the major scale explained in detail” CLICK HERE

Why are the modes useful for the guitar player?

The modes [in this case of the major scale] open up the guitar fingerboard and it becomes easier and easier to connect arpeggios,
phrases, quartal, pentatonic and melodic lines together and create
smooth transitions across the guitar fingerboard.

The first example below consists of connecting the arpeggios contained within the modes. Here we have f major 7 to Dminor 7 to B Minor 7 flat 5 to F major to E minor 7 and finishing with B minor 7 flat 5 [or G9 depending on the bass note]. The Modal connections are smooth and open up the guitar fingerboard easily!

1

Below you will see how easy it is to connect together arpeggios and then create triad pairs from them.

2

Again, more arpeggio connections from the major modes

3

Below, a mix of arpeggios and triad pairs from the modes

4

QUARTAL HARMONY. JOHN COLTRANE 4THS DEVELOPED FROM THE DORIAN MODE. THIS IS HOW YOU GAET THAT JAZZY SOUND!

5

D Minor to E minor

6

Simple quartal dorian mode jazz/fusion vamp

7

Below is a simple pentatonic line from the major mode to play over a dominant G 7 chord

pentatnic

Finally an extended F major 9 extended line from the major mode

F MAJ VAR

For more information please download my free ebook “Modes of the major scale explained in detail” CLICK HERE

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PART 2: MAJOR SCALE MODES COMPLETE.

A mode of a major scale is just basically an INVERSION of that scale. This means that it is the same scale starting on a different note. What would be the point of this you may ask? Well each mode has its own unique flavour and corresponding harmony.

Many Guitarists/Musicians look at the Modes through the key of C major. This tends to leave them very “Confused” when for example someone says play C Locrian. Here many musicians will just play a scale of C major starting on a note of B natural when in fact they should be playing the D flat major scale starting on the note of C natural. Why is this?

First lets have a look at the Modes in C major, C major [or C Ionian]

C Ionian [Major 1st degree of scale]

1

D Dorian starts on 2nd degree of the C major Scale

2

E Phrygian starts on the 3rd degree of the C Major scale

3

F Lydian starts on the 4th degree of the C Major scale

4

G Mixolydian starts on the 5th degree of the C Major scale

5

A Aeolian starts on the 6th degree of the C Major scale

6

B Locrian starts on the 7th degree of the C Major scale

7

SIDE NOTE: PENTATONIC SCALES WITHIN THE C MAJOR SCALE

Also within the most used scale in western music is the most used scale in Pop and Rock. The minor and major pentatonic. [Again, you could start the pentatonic scale on any other degree of the major scale].

Guitar Cliches

p1

p2

Intervallic Relationships

C to D=1 tone
C to E=Major third

C to F=Perfect fourth

C to G=Perfect fifth

C to A=Major sixth
C to B=Major seventh

HOW TO REMEMBER THEIR NAMES IN ORDER

Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian 

“If    Dora   Plays    Like   Me         Al      Listens"

TRANSPOSING THE MODES OF THE MAJOR SCALE

If we count up one whole tone [2 half steps] from C then we have the note of D the 2nd degree of the C major scale. From this D note we begin the D dorian mode.

dor 222

So if the note D is the second note of the C major scale then what is C the second note of? Answer = B flat. You can either count down two half steps from C or up two half steps from B flat. So C dorian will have the same notes as B flat major and starting on its 2nd degree note of C [see ex.1]

EX.1 C Dorian

dorian

C Dorian 2 octaves   

2oct

If E Phrygian is the 3rd degree [or the Major 3rd up from C] then what is C the 3rd degree of [or the Major 3rd up from]. Answer A flat. You can either count down five half steps from C or up five half steps from A flat.

EX.2 C Phrygian

  phry

C PHRYGIAN 2 OCTAVES Screen Shot 2018-12-24 at 17.35.31

If F Lydian is the Fourth degree of C [or the perfect fourth up from C] then what is C the fourth degree of [or the perfect fourth up from]. Answer is G.

EX.3 C Lydian

lydian

C LYDIAN 2 OCTAVES Screen Shot 2018-12-24 at 17.40.19

If G Mixolydian is the fifth of C [or the perfect fifth up from C] then what is C the fifth of [or the perfect 5th up from]. Answer is F.

 EX.4 C Mixolydian 

Screen Shot 2018-12-24 at 17.55.23

C MIXOLYDIAN 2 OCTAVES Screen Shot 2018-12-24 at 17.55.32

If A Aeolian is the sixth of C[or the major 6th  up from C] then what is C the  sixth of [or the major 6th up from] Answer is E flat.

EX.5 C Aeolian 

1

C Aeolian 2 octaves

Screen Shot 2018-12-24 at 17.59.53

If B Locrian is the seventh of C [or the major seventh up from] then what is C the seventh of [or the major seventh up from]. Answer D flat.

C LOCRIAN

1

C locrian 2 octavesScreen Shot 2018-12-24 at 18.02.55

LOOKING AT HARMONY FOR TRANSPOSED MODES OF THE MAJOR SCALE

These next examples are played over a C Pedal Note in the bass to establish the Harmony and flavour of each mode. This is also useful for putting together little Vamps for practicing the Modes.

1 2   M M22

BEING CREATIVE WITH THE MODES

Back to Basics: To explore the “Harmony” of the modes we need to look at the arpeggios/ chords contained within them. We will look at the C major [Ionian] for simplicity’s sake.

Arpeggios contained within the C Ionian Mode [or C Major]

1

Screen Shot 2018-12-23 at 22.26.45

EXTENDING THE CHORDAL ARPEGGIOS: C IONIAN

With this in mind we can now extend the C Major [Ionian] arpeggios contained in the harmony. [Starting on the 4th degree F as it opens out the whole fingerboard for us.

z
zzzzzzzzzzzzzzz2222222Screen Shot 2018-12-23 at 22.29.26
This is how we start to create improvisation with the modes rather than just playing a scale over some chord or the other. In truth if you miss the harmony then you miss the value of the modes altogether both as a composer and as an improviser.

MODES AS QUARTAL HARMONY:

It is quite common to employ Quartal Harmony. This harmony in 4ths gives a very intense jazzy sound as used by John Coltrane and Mcoy Tyner. [This is only one way of harmonising this, but it is quite common amongst jazz musicians].

b

CONSTRUCTING SIMPLE REPETITIVE VAMPS FOR PRACTICE: From the chords of the harmony above here is a simple “‘Dorian Mode” vamp.

Screen Shot 2018-12-24 at 18.07.53

DORIAN MODE IMPROVISATION

Below are a couple of pentatonic ideas to get you started. If we look at these elementary examples we can already see that within this modal scale there is much creative room for pentatonic and motific development.

Screen Shot 2018-12-24 at 18.10.27

SUPERIMPOSITION

In this final Example [Using C dorian again] we can Exploit the Mode by Superimposing and flowing through its triads. [Starting on B flat to open up the Full finger board for us].

Screen Shot 2018-12-24 at 18.33.33

Note: *You can also make “Triad Pairs” From the above exercise*

C PHRYGIAN MODE

The Phrygian Mode has a “Spanish” Flavour to it. Play through the little example below and hear the semitone from the tonic to the supertonic that creates this distinctive Spanish sound.

c1

Longer Phrygian Mode Line

c222

C LYDIAN MODE

Here we will look at the Lydian mode of C. Below this is a Variation of the same exercise but in plain C major [C Ionian]. Notice the difference that the F# adds to the flavour and harmonic content of C Lydian as opposed to the F Natural of C Ionian [C major].

C LYDIAN MODElyd1
C IONIAN MODE

lyd2

MIXOLYDIAN FOR DOMINANT 7THS

This scale can be used like a modulating scale. This is the Mixolydian. This is because whenever you have a Dominant 7th chord you will need to change the scale. E,g From C major C D E F G A B – to C7 you would need the B flat [flat7 to resolve to the major 3rd of the new chord/harmony]  so you would have – C D E F G A B flat or C Mixolydian. Below we can see this scalic approach in action.

C MIXOLYDIAN                                       F MIXOLYDIANmixo

C AEOLEAN MODE

In this example Listen to the sound of the Harmony as you play through this simple Vamp. You will hear that the “Dominant” Chord is Minor and Not Major. I have left out the G note to create a C chord riff as you would hear in much AOR Rock/Pop Music.

AOL1

Below is a simple Triplet Arpeggio idea of the above. Again listen to the sound of the Minor Dominant Chord in the last bar.
AOL 2

This last Aeolean example is a modern fusion-esque approach

AOL3

C LOCRIAN MODE

The next example is an angular phrase as used by guitarists like Robert Fripp.

LOCRIAN

LASTLY,

Blues through the modes of C major for improvisation practice

BLUES
Record yourself playing the chords and then improvise over the top using the relevant modes for that chord.
For example,Cmaj7 use C ionian [Or even C Lydian].For Bb/C use C dorian or C Aeolean etc.
It’s amazing how quickly all of this makes sense when you practice this way. It’s also amazing how quickly you develop new and creative ideas from a modal persperspective.
The modal concepts of the major scale are really quite easy to understand when we look at their transpositions because then we can really hear their different flavours and harmonic applications. Although I wrote transposing the modes of the major scale lesson for the acoustic/electric guitar the music theory of each mode regardless if it be “Dorian”, “Phrygian”, “Lydian” etc can be applied to any musical instrument.

 

Super-Ultra-Hyper-Mega-Meta-Modes/Scales

LYDIAN SCALIC/MODAL EXTENSION GOING UP IN THE CYCLE OF 5THS STARTING with “C lydian”

meA 1 lydian

LYDIAN IDEA FOR THE GUITAR WITH ‘TABLATURE” ASCENDING UP IN THE CYCLE OF 5THS BUT STARTING with “G lydian”

Screen Shot 2019-11-11 at 18.55.31

Jacob Collier LOCRIAN scale/mode idea. although it is more like a “Mixolydian” modulating ascension.

meta 2 locrian:mixolydian

OTHER IDEAS:

CREATING A SYNTHETIC SCALE FORMATION BY EMPLOYING TWO DIFFERENT ONE OCTAVE SCALES WITH THE SAME TONIC NOTE

lydian minor

For more on the “lydian Minor” this excellent [“The Exciting Universe Of Music Theory”] website has some excellent in depth information please CLICK

Dave Liebman “A CHROMATIC APPROACH TO JAZZ HARMONY AND MELODY” IMPROVISATION CONCEPTS FOR SCALE AND MODAL EXTENSIONS.

Notice the superimpositions/extensions of chord and scale ascending part 1

l1

Ascending extensions part 2

l2

Al di Meola Chordal Picking 3/4 Guitar Lesson [Picking Arpeggios]

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In this Lesson we will look at Al Di Meola’s 3/4 Plectrum “Chordal Picking” patterns as used in compositions like “Orient Blue”. This style picks the notes of a chord by employing fluid/specific picking patterns to bring out the arpeggios.

basic 3/4  pattern: “down down down up up up”

Al di meola basic chordal right hand picking pattern

4 bar sequence of basic 3/4 chordal picking pattern

Al di meola 3/4 right hand chordal picking pattern lesson basic

with the addition of a triplet pattern going “down down up”

Al di meola 8ths to triplet chordal picking right hand guitar patterns lesson

chordal picking with melody notes in the treble [1st string]

Al di Meola chordal picking guitar technique lesson

3/4 chordal picking riff

Al di Meola chordal picking guitar patterns lesson right hand guitar technique

 

23rd Chord Serial Tone- Rows Pt2 [Guitar]

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Below we have the Lennie Tristano #15th Arpeggio.

#15 tristano arpeggio

If we keep adding thirds to a chord we create “TERTIAN” Harmony. In the example below we move up from #15 to 17th to 19th to 21st and finally to 23rd. [Notice that we have used all 12 notes].

23rd chord Tertian harmony example

Below we have 2 “Hexatonic” lines making up one 12 tone 23rd chord line followed by a different 23rd chord line in 16ths.

Hexatonic 23rd chord improvisation example

In the final example we alternate rhythmically by employing triplets in the first 23rd chord line and 16ths in the second 23rd chord line.

Triplets 12 tone 23rd chord lesson and example

CHORD PAIR LINE

chord pair 23rd chord lesson

HEXATONIC LINE

hexatonic 12 tone serialism line with the 23rd chord

TETRACHORDS/ARPEGGIOS LINE

arpeggios and tetrachords using the 23rd chord

GROUPINGS LINE

23 rd chord serial tone rows odd rhythmic groupings

TRIPLETS LINE

triplets 23rd chord example

16THS LINE

16ths 23rd chord 12tone row jazz guitar lesson

23RD CHORD PART 4

HERE ARE SOME MORE WAYS OF “STACKING” FOR A 23RD CHORD AND IDEAS FOR COMPOSITION AND IMPROVISATION:

We can make a ‘Quartal” Stack

quartal stack in 23rd chord

Next we have a “Polychordal” stack

polychordal 23rd chord example and music theory lesson

“Polychordal Variation”

polychordal variation with the 23rd chord

We can also stack as “Mirror” Harmony

mirror harmony negative harmony 23rd chord

Lastly we have a “Compound” stack

compound 23rd chord stack

23rd Chords Jazz Improvisation

Lennie Tristano’s Augmented 15th Arpeggio

Screen Shot 2019-10-25 at 17.19.59

Above is the “Classic’ Lennie Tristano superimposed #15 arpeggio for C Major7. The #15 sounds “Correct” because all of the 5ths in the arpeggio are PERFECT 5THS.

Lennie Tristano Cmaj7.Dmaj arpeggios. #11 #15th diagram lesson

EXTENDING AN ARPEGGIO TO THE 23RD

23rd chord extension

 

TERTIAN HARMONY

If we keep stacking 3rds with superimposition and extension we create “Tertian” harmony. So, above a 15th we have a 17th, above that a 19th, above that a 21st and above that a 23rd. Hence a 23rd chord will use all 12 notes.

The 23rd chord example below has a major leaning

major 23rd chord example for music jazz improvisation

This example provides a 23rd chord with a minor leaning

minor 23rd chord jazz improvisation lesson tertian harmony

Here we have a 23rd chord with an augmented leaning

AUGMENTED 23RD CHORD jazz improvisation lesson

Lastly we have a 23rd chord with a diminished  leaning

DIMINISHED 23RD CHORD for jazz improvisation lesson and diagram

Going back to our old friend George Russell and the Lydian Chromatic Concept we become aware of the shifting of tonal gravity and what is available with a 23rd chord that shifts out and how we can manipulate it to create new ideas and avoid cliches. Also going back to our 1st example of Lennie Tritano’s #15th arpeggio we hear how we can exploit the perfect 5ths to make something not right “Sound” right but fresh and new.

Lydian Chromatic Concept LCC

How to create music and improvisation with the 23rd chord

Below is a great example of my personal favourite 23rd chord creating a lovely Tertian Stack. TERTIAN STACK 23rd chord for jazz improvisation lesson and example

This example also reverts back to our 12 tone blog for improvisation and jazz heads/tunes. There are 3 sets of TETRACHORDS. Or 3 sets of 4 note groupings.

23rd chord tetrachords example for jazz improvisation

Next we can take the same 23rd chord pitches and make Hexatonic or 2 groups of 6 from the 23rd chord tertian superimposition.

23rd chord hexatonics for jazz improvisation

Finally we can make 3 note cells to form a 12 tone line from the same tertian 23rd chord extension.

23rd chord 3 note cells 12 tone lesson example for jazz improvisation

23rd chord Improvised line ideas:

Employing 23rd chord outlines in Major, minor, diminished augmented.

Line 1

23rd chord improvised jazz line example lesson

Line 2

jazz fusion 23rd chord improvised line and music theory lesson

Line 3

triplets 23rd chord improvised jazz line and jazz lesson

Line 4

23rd chord improvised line for jazz improvisation lesson

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The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organisation by George Russell

THE LCC BY GEORGE RUSSEL: “Lydian chromatic concept of tonal gravity”.

If we look at the diagram below we see the “Overtone Series” The perfect octave and the perfect 5th. If you can think in terms of perfect 5ths then the LCC will be much easier to understand.

Overton Series

First we start with C Ionian [C Major in Classical western tradition].

c

Next George raises the 4th  forming C Lydian [Raised 4th or#11]

Raised 4th or #11 to create C Lydian

Below we see Stacked 3rds in C major [Ionian] and then in C LYDIAN [Hence the f sharp at the top below the a note]

C ionian                                                                 C Lydian [13TH]

Ionian to Lydian 13th example

Below we see George Russel’s TONAL GRAVITY of Stacked 5ths. Notice the flattened 5th in the first bar but the “Perfect 5th” in the second bar. [The second bar creating C Lydian].

Flattened fifth and Perfect With example

Below is the piano layout which one can easily hear tonal gravity across the long span of the piano keyboard. We have the #11 [F#] to create stacked “PERFECT” 5THS” [which again results in C Lydian]

Lydian tonal gravity piano

Below is a layout starting on the lowest F note in order to hear it all in full along the guitar fingerboard. There is also a version in the second bar that moves around with C as the tonic due to lack of span on the guitar fingerboard.

Tonal gravity on guitar fingerboard

If we take the C major 7th chord and look at the C major scale we can see the “Avoid” note. The E note clashes with the F note and the B natural and the F natural produce a Dominant sound. By adding the Perfect fifth  F# there isn’t any “Avoid” notes as displayed in the second bar below.

Major and Lydian and avoid note for sharp 11th

"The interval of a fifth is the building block of tonal gravity, a seven-tone scale created by successive fifths 
establishes the most vertically unified harmonic order whereby the gravity falls down each fifth back to the singular 
Lydian tonic". "Andy Wasserman"

F C G D A E B = ALL PERFECT 5THS = F LYDIAN

“The Lydian Chromatic Scale” The ANSWER TO ANYONE CONFUSED!

 By stacking PERFECT 5ths George Russel creates a chromatic scale

[F] C, G, D, A, E, B, F,C, G, D(E), A(B), E(F), [B(C) = a 12 tone scale.

The Confusion?

But “why” does he skip the interval between the Seventh and Eighth notes in the diagram in his book with the outgoing tonal gravity?

2] The answer is because the outgoing tonal gravity level goes to C# next [not F# for perfect 5ths]. Hence the 1st “Lydian scale” then goes to the 2nd scale “Lydian Augmented” with the raised 5th.

F Lydian chromatic order of tonal gravity

ANSWER BELOW IN DIAGRAM FORM

Complete explanation and diagram of the Lydian chromatic concept of Tonal Organisation

BELOW: AS SHOWN IN GEROGE RUSSELLS LCC BOOK

Lydian chromatic concept 12 tonal order of tonal gravity

In the example diagram above we see George Russels “Tonal order” going from numbers 1 to 12.  Numbers 1 to 7 being the Lydian mode.

When we go beyond the 7 notes of the lydian scale and further up the cycle of 5ths things increase in terms of  dissonance.

George Russell terms the scales as”Ingoing” “Semi ingoing” “Semi outgoing”  and “Outgoing” . The more we move to the right of the diagram the more “Outgoing/Dissonant” the scale will sound.

In terms of scale substitution we see a C# and not a D flat as this would be a raised 5th [Augmented 5th] and it would make no sense reading it enharmonically as a D flat as we see in the diagram above and in Georges scales.

GEORGE RUSSEL “VERTICAL” SCALES:

Basic Lydian  [#11]

F Lydian Scale

This could also be seen as 3rd mode of Melodic Minor

Lydian Augmented scale

This could also be seen as 4th mode of the Harmonic Major

Lydian Diminished scale

This could also be seen as the 4th mode of the Melodic Minor

lydian flat seventh

This could also be seen as the Whole Tone Scale

Auxilary augmented scale [Whole tone scale]

This could also be seen as Octatonic Whole Half Diminished

Auxilary diminished scale

This could also be seen as Octatonic Half Whole Diminished

Auxilary diminished scale

Finally, Horizontal Scales. Notice the B FLAT hence the Major.

Horizontal Scales Major,flat 7th,augmented,African American

Finding a parent scale,

From E Flat 7 going to A Flat major 7th we would employ the D Flat Lydian mode due to the G natural or #11 of the D FLAT LYDIAN to modulate to A flat major 7th.

PART 2 Final Analysis

The Lydian Chromatic Scale and best explanation from “Wikipedia”

Russell builds a prototype chromatic scale starting on the Lydian Tonic by stacking fifths, skipping the interval between the seventh and eighth tones. Using C as the Lydian Tonic yields the following 12-note scale with enharmonic respellings:

C, G, D, A, E, B, F♯,C♯, G♯, D♯(E♭), A♯(B♭), E♯(F), B♯(C). Thus the Lydian Chromatic Scale and all its derivatives contain only Pythagorean intervals.

OR

Screen Shot 2019-02-28 at 20.15.35

LYDIAN PENTATONIC ASCENDING SCALE THROUGH THE CYCLE OF 5THS.

LYDIAN PENTATONIC ASCENDING SCALE THROUGH THE CYCLE OF 5THS.

 FOR GUITARISTS

As an “Afterthought” for any guitarists here is my fingering always leading with the 1st finger on George Russell “Vertical” scales.

F Lydian Guitar fingering

Lydian Augmented guitar fingering scale

Lydian Diminished scale guitar fingering

F Lydian falt 7th scale guitar fingering example

Whole tone scale guitar fingering [Auxilary augmented]

Auxilary diminished scale guitar fingering

Auxilary Diminished scale mode Blues

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IN CONCLUSION

It is a good idea to read George Russels most up to date book either from a reference library or purchase. It is a very expensive book to buy though so be warned.
LINKS
Wiki LCC

lcc



Book Cover Picture