In the first example we see a minor pentatonic pattern moving in groups of three notes that displaces the rhythm. This creates a unique fresh sound to the most used scale on the guitar. The rhythmic displacement also pushes the rhythm along. Also notice the use of the interval of a perfect 5th.
Eric Johnson 3 note Guitar Pattern lesson example:
In the next example we can see how Eric Johnson uses 4 note guitar patterns. He also uses the interval of a perfect 4th which creates motivic movement.
Eric Johnson 4 note Guitar Pattern lesson example
This next example shows how Eric Johnson takes the most overused cliche on the guitar [the minor pentatonic] and exploits the intervals to create a fresh and unique sound.
Eric Johnson intervallic manipulation:
In this last example we can see how Eric Johnson employs the interval of a perfect 4th again, but, this time with arpeggios and inversion that creates a melodic sound to the ear. Again this moves us far away from the minor pentatonic cliches.
Eric Johnson 4ths and arpeggios guitar pattern
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This 1st example is quite demanding to play but it demonstrates the power of manipulating the intervals to create a unique sound and style. [Notice that the interval of the 7th crops up a lot along with 6ths and 3rds].
The 2nd example is a bit more straight forward, but, because Eric Johnson manipulates the interval of a perfect 4th he creates a fresh modern sound. Also notice that there are arpeggios. These arpeggios create melodic content to the example and draw the listeners ear into the music.
Although this is only a short lesson there is plenty to take from these two examples because they contain the key to unlocking an original approach to the most basic and most used thing in guitar the minor pentatonic scale. The way that Eric Johnson exploits the intervals in this scale is a real eye opener, oh, and a real ear opener!
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Alternate picking is a strict Up/Down or Down/Up Picking Movement as opposed to a hammering on and pulling off technique. We do this by employing a relaxed wrist motion plucking up and down or down and up from the WRIST. Never do we pick from the elbow, forearm or shoulder!. We sometimes use a floating motion across the strings and sometimes a pivoting or anchoring technique by resting our palm lightly on the bridge of the guitar. The exercise below demonstrates the basic “Down Up” and “Up Down” Strict alternate picking movement.
When Holding the pick [plectrum] the thumb needs to be “Rigid” but not tense [Flexible is the best definition]. There must be zero tension in the hand either.
[ With a loose thumb it is easy to drop the pick and lose fluidity.]
Ex.2 Simple exercise for holding the Pick:
Put out your hand as if to shake hands
Bring the fingers in as if to hold a cup
Bring down the thumb. It can remain “Flexible” but not wobbly and helpless.
Inside of plectrum grip. [Fingers Lightly Folded In]
Basic Grip with the THUMB as the “Powerhouse” [Never the arm/elbow]
Ready to Play! Although the thumb is gripping the plectrum firmly there is no tension in the hand or wrist.
The Classic Plectrum Grip [My Style]
The hand is closed but it is not tense. The fingers are lightly tucked in. The wrist is loose. This is a very common grip. This is a really excellent grip if you are having problems with your picking hand . This is the grip as used by the great improvisers like John Mclaughlin and Al Di Meola.
Other Plectrum picking Grips:
Different players grip the pick in different fashions. I use the classic John Mclaughlin grip because I feel it is the best one when it comes to jazz/fusion improvisation and complex rhythms. Whichever grip you choose always remember that regardless of how you hold the plectrum the Principles remain the same. The Thumb being the powerhouse that takes any “Pressure” as we “Pluck/alternate with the wrist”.
John Mclaughlin style Grip Lesson
If we look at the diagram below we can see what is PHYSICALLY taking place when we are crossing the strings.
If you pluck UP on your 1st string you will have to SKIP OVER the second string before plucking DOWN on it.
So when we are plucking across the strings we are in a way string skipping. Most people I have taught are completely unaware of this. This is why so many people find/assume that alternate picking is difficult.
From the "outside" of the strings it is Up skip over pluck down pluck up
[DOWN SKIP OVER PLUCK UP-reverse
From the “Inside” of the strings it is Down skip over pluck up.
[UP SKIP OVER PLUCK DOWN-reverse
VERY COMMON EXAMPLES/EXERCISES
Down skip over pluck up-when crossing
UP skip over pluck down-when crossing
Coming UP on the Up stroke Exercises
These 3 simple exercises emphasise the coming “UP” on the upstroke creating a rolling effect. These are “EVEN” groupings meaning that the picking pattern repeats itself.
2 strings crossing and left hand shifting whilst alternate picking “EVEN”Groupings
EXERCISE 3: JAZZ DOUBLE TIMING 16ths Semiquavers
Start with a downstroke and feel the last stroke in the group of 16th notes which will be an upstroke. Use this to be aware in order for you to pluck and accent the 1st stroke in the next group of four 16th notes. Repeat the pattern.This is essential to get the double timing 16th notes rhythmic and precise whilst alternate picking.
The exercise/lick below on a 2 5 1 is built on 4 note groupings of 16ths called “TETRACHORDS”.Take it slowly using the rhythmic method from the 16ths exercise above.
Exercise 4: GROUPS OF 6 NOTES “ODD” Groupings
Start on a DOWN STROKE and then come “UP” on the second group of triplets and follow the sequence. These are repeated patterns but are “ODD” Groupings meaning that on every 3 notes the picking pattern changes, e,g down 2 3 Up 2 3. [Although as a group of 6 it would be an even grouping].
FREVO “Rasgado” INTRO By John Mclaughlin/Paco De Lucia
ALTERNATE PICKING ALIGNMENT
In the diagram below we can easily see the right hand crossing the strings picking each string naturally as it comes. We can also see that the right hand is always aligned with the string it wishes to pluck.
Aligned with the 6th string Open E
Aligned with the 5th string Open A
Aligned with the 4th string Open D
Aligned with the 3rd string Open G
Aligned with the 2nd string Open B
Aligned with the 1st string Open E
If you do alternate picking properly and pluck each string and each note of a phrase with a loose wrist and and relaxed arm/hand then you will avoid injury.
But if you just do a tremolo and hammer on then you will put yourself at risk.
The principles outlined in this short book are very simple and easy to understand. They are not only here to help you progress but also to help you avoid injury.
Anchoring means pivoting on the bridge lightly
Floating means not resting on the bridge for support. Although this support could come from resting the arm on the body of the guitar [mainly acoustic].
Below is an example of what I do which is a mixture 70% FLOATING with 30% Anchoring.
Angling the pick
Some people prefer to angle the pick. Some people do this naturally.
It is best to use a “Hard” Plectrum for alternate picking. [Jim Dunlop do some very good hard plectrums].
Employing the metrenome is the only way to learn quickly and effectively. This amazing device will have you alternate picking smooth and precise rhythms on your guitar. Wether it’s jazz, fusion, improvisation or heavy metal the metronome is the best way to achieve mastery with the guitar pick.
This website page is only a guide and was written for the main purpose of helping a beginner/or anyone struggling to understand alternate picking and avoid injury whilst learning it.
Alternate Picking "Triplet" Style Al di Meola CLICK
Alternate Picking Jazz Fusion Improvisational Style of John Mclaughlin CLICK
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